This may explain why anxious people are less likely to die due to accidents. When people are confronted with unpleasant and potentially harmful stimuli such as foul odors or tastes, PET-scans show increased bloodflow in the amygdala. This might indicate that anxiety is a protective mechanism designed to prevent the organism from engaging in potentially harmful behaviors.
Social risk factors for anxiety include a history of trauma e. Contextual factors that are thought to contribute to anxiety include gender socialization and learning experiences. In particular, learning mastery the degree to which people perceive their lives to be under their own control and instrumentality, which includes such traits as self-confidence, independence, and competitiveness fully mediate the relation between gender and anxiety. That is, though gender differences in anxiety exist, with higher levels of anxiety in women compared to men, gender socialization and learning mastery explain these gender differences.
Anxiety disorder appears to be a genetically inherited neurochemical dysfunction that may involve autonomic imbalance; decreased GABA-ergic tone; allelic polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase COMT gene; increased adenosine receptor function; increased cortisol. In the central nervous system CNS , the major mediators of the symptoms of anxiety disorders appear to be norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA. Other neurotransmitters and peptides, such as corticotropin-releasing factor, may be involved.
Peripherally, the autonomic nervous system , especially the sympathetic nervous system, mediates many of the symptoms. Increased flow in the right parahippocampal region and reduced serotonin type 1A receptor binding in the anterior and posterior cingulate and raphe of patients are the diagnostic factors for prevalence of anxiety disorder. The amygdala is central to the processing of fear and anxiety, and its function may be disrupted in anxiety disorders.
Anxiety processing in the basolateral amygdala has been implicated with dendritic arborization of the amygdaloid neurons.
SK2 potassium channels mediate inhibitory influence on action potentials and reduce arborization. Joseph E. LeDoux and Lisa Feldman Barrett have both sought to separate automatic threat responses from additional associated cognitive activity within anxiety. Anxiety is distinguished from fear , which is an appropriate cognitive and emotional response to a perceived threat. It occurs in situations only perceived as uncontrollable or unavoidable, but not realistically so.
Another description of anxiety is agony, dread, terror, or even apprehension. Fear and anxiety can be differentiated in four domains: 1 duration of emotional experience, 2 temporal focus, 3 specificity of the threat, and 4 motivated direction. Fear is short lived, present focused, geared towards a specific threat, and facilitating escape from threat; anxiety, on the other hand, is long-acting, future focused, broadly focused towards a diffuse threat, and promoting excessive caution while approaching a potential threat and interferes with constructive coping.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Anxiety disambiguation. For the band, see Misgiving band. Further information: Angst , Existential crisis , and Nihilism. Main articles: Test anxiety , Mathematical anxiety , Stage fright , and Somatic anxiety. Main articles: Stranger anxiety and Social anxiety. Main article: Anxiety disorder. This section does not cite any sources.
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